Axium SOP

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ROOFING AND CHIMNEY

GENERAL INFO:

Before getting on the roof the inspector should set up the large ladder (15.5 foot) and use the ladder clamp to secure it to the roof. Next put your iPhone on your belt clip or in your pocket, as well as any tools that you will be bringing up to the roof with you.

Once on the roof safely take out your iPhone and go to your Roofing/Chimney section and it’s going to comeuptoyour2coverpictures. Your2coverpicturesfortheRoofshouldbeshowingasmuchofthe roof as possible and the different sides to the roof.

As you walk around the roof, be looking at the shingles, vents, chimney, flashing, and gutters for any damage and signs of leaking. As you are walking you will also be evaluating the structure beneath your feet and feeling for any soft spots. Make sure you also go to the very top of the roof and walk the ridge and check for any defects with the installation and flashing.

When you are done with the roof and get down always leave the ladder out in plain site, because you are making a show to the client that you actually got on the roof, especially when you drive a small car, they will know you actually have a ladder.

PROCEDURE FOR EXCLUDING ROOF INSPECTION DUE TO SNOW OR ICE

When the roof is unable to be inspected due to snow or ice you will need to exclude the roof in your program, as well as send an email into the office. It is important to send an email to the office with at least two pictures showing the roof covered with snow or ice so we can document that it was covered and unsafe for us to inspect at that time. The office also needs this information so they can follow-up with the customer to reschedule the roof inspection once the snow/ice has been melted. The office does not know the roof was excluded if you just put it into the program so you must also send an email to admin@axiuminspections.com with pictures. If you have any questions about this procedure, please contact the office for assistance.

REMEMBER: Before you are done, always check and make sure that everything on the screen is green so you don’t have to go back up to the roof.

Tools Needed: Ladders (12.5 foot and/or 15.5 foot), ladder clamp, tape measure.

1.01 Method of Evaluation

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should walk the roof if it is safe to do so.

Tools Needed

The inspector would want to bring a tape measure up while walking the roof. They will also be using one or both ladders and the clamp to attach ladder to roof for safety.

Procedure

  • The inspector should walk around the property to find the safest and shortest part of the home to set up ladder.
  • Use large (15.5 feet) ladder and extend 3 feet above the roof surface. Use ladder clamp to secure the ladder to the roof.
  • Climb up the ladder safely and step onto the roof and when finished inspecting safely climb back down the ladder.
  • If the inspector can not walk on the roof, make sure to document the reasons why with pictures and explanations in the report.
  • The inspector should not typically walk on wood shake, concrete tile, or metal roofs.
  • If the roof is covered with snow/ice than the inspector would exclude the entire roofing section and document with pictures. Also make sure to take pictures and send to the office informing them that the roof could not be inspected.
  • Also on outside when you check the roof, leave the ladder in plain sight if the client is not here. You want to make sure they see that you got on the roof and you actually have a ladder, especially when you drive a car. They want to know how you get a ladder into that car. DO NOT let anyone else climb the ladder.

Common Defects

  • No defects for this section.

Common Mistakes

  • Deciding not to walk a roof that should have been walked.
  • Not taking pictures of the reason why a roof was not walked.

1.02 Roof Configuration

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector will determine the roof configuration of the property.

Tools Needed

No tools required to determine the roof configuration of the property.

Procedure

  • The inspector should be able to determine the roof configuration by walking around the property. There are many different types, so pick the predominant style. You can select multiple styles but most roofs have one predominant style.

Common Defects

  • No defects for this section.

Common Mistakes

  • Identifying the wrong style of roof.

1.03 Number of Layers

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should determine the number of layers on the roof.

Tools Needed

The inspector might want to use a tape measure to show the thickness of multiple layers.

Procedure

  • The inspector should look at the edge of the roof while on the ladder to determine how many layers are on the roof. If the roof has one layer the inspector should take a picture at the edge showing the one layer. If there are multiple layers the inspector should use had or tape measure to show the thickness of multiple layers and pit it in the report as defect. Sometimes there is a double layer of shingles at the first row. Make sure to look at the shingles and determine if they are different or the same age and style shingle. You can also look at the rake edge to help verify. This is to inform the client when the time comes to replace the roof, it will be more expensive because all previous layers need to be removed before new roofing. Plus, there may be too much weight on the roof, especially with an older home that does not have roof trusses.

Common Defects

  • Having two or more layers of roofing materials.

Common Mistakes

  • Not accurately being able to determine the roof has more than one layer.

1.04 Membrane

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should lift the shingles at the edge of the roof if possible to determine what the membrane is underneath.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the membrane.

Procedure

  • When standing on ladder at the edge of the roof, lift the shingles if possible to determine the membrane on the roof.

Common Defects

  • No membrane being installed at the roof.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking for a membrane at the roof.

1.05 Flashings – Edge

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the edge flashing.

Procedure

  • The inspector will observe the edge flashing from the ladder and determine the adequacy of the drip edge.

Common Defects

  • Drip edge flashing being damaged, loose, or missing.
  • Drip edge flashing not being properly installed.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking the drip edge flashing around the entire property.

1.06 Roof Covering Materials

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the roof-covering materials.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe from the ground or from walking the roof the type of roof-covering materials. Should also verify if the pitch is correct for the type of shingles being used if it is in question.
  • If the inspector is unable to see the type of roof-covering materials because of snow/ice, make sure to document this in report with pictures and an explanation.
  • The inspector should not typically walk on wood shake, concrete tile, or metal roofs.

Common Defects

  • No defects for this section.

Common Mistakes

  • The inspector should make sure that if the roof has T-Lock shingles that they explain to the client that this shingle is no longer in production. This means that if there are any damaged shingles, they cannot buy them anymore. This means they might have to replace the entire roof if there are a few damaged shingles so it is important to relay this issue to the client even though it is not considered a defect.

1.07 Roof Covering Condition

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the roof-covering materials.

Procedure

  • If the roof is in good condition the inspector will be required to take two pictures showing the condition of the roof-covering materials. The first picture would be a close up picture of a shingle/tile and the second picture should be a picture showing the a large portion of the roof-covering materials on the roof.
  • The inspector should observe the roof-covering materials from either the ladder or while walking on the roof. Make sure to look at the entire roof, if it is accessible, in order to check for damage in all areas.
  • If there is damage to the roof-covering materials make sure to document the defects with pictures and comments in your report.

Common Defects

  • Damaged, missing, or deteriorated shingles.
  • Minor damage from hail, wind, and/or foot traffic.
  • Cracked or broken tiles.
  • Shingles or tiles have been repaired in areas.
  • Shingles are pitted or blistered (result of insufficient ventilation in the attic).
  • Shingles are bulged/bubbled in some areas, which may make it more susceptible to damage.
  • Have minor damage or erosion in some areas.
  • Has developed an “alligatored” appearance due to aging.
  • Shingles that are patched or not sealed.
  • Roof covering materials is nearing the end of its life cycle.
  • Roof covering materials are older on one side.
  • Granule loss from shingles.
  • Has excessive moss or algae growth – Have abrasion damage from tree branches.
  • Vegetation growth on the roof-covering materials.

Common Mistakes

  • Not observing the entire roof and checking for damage in all areas.
  • Not taking enough pictures to show the defects. You can never take too many pictures to show the condition of the roof.

1.08 Flashings – Ridge

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should walk up to the ridge of the home (if the roof is safe to be walked) and observe the flashing.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the ridge flashing.

Procedure

  • If the inspector is able to walk the roof they should walk up to the top (the ridge) and walk along the entire ridge and inspect for any damaged shingles/tiles and flashing.
  • If the inspector is NOT able to walk the roof they should observe the ridge from the ladder or ground with binoculars and inspect for any damaged shingles/tiles and flashing.

Common Defects

  • The ridge shingles could be bent, corroded, damaged, loose, or missing.
  • There could be exposed nail heads (usually at the ends of the ridge).
  • There could be debris buildup on the ridge.
  • Ridge shingles could be installed or not sealed properly.

Common Mistakes

  • Not walking the entire ridge (if possible) and checking for damage. Should always check to make sure that the exposed nails are properly sealed.

1.09 Flashings – Wall

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the wall flashing.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the wall flashing from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof.
  • Diverter flashings (also known as kick-out flashings) should be installed where the roof meets a vertical wall that extends beyond the roof line. Many homes either do not have these flashings installed, or were installed incorrectly. Without diverter flashings the property may experience water damage. Water will invade the walls and cause unseen framing damage.

Common Defects

  • Wall flashing being damaged, loose, missing, or having exposed nail heads.
  • Wall flashing being installed or sealed improperly.
  • Kick-out flashing that is missing.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking all wall flashing on the roof. Make sure to check all areas where there is wall flashing present.

1.10 Flashings – Vent

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the vent flashing.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the vent flashing from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof.

Common Defects

  • Vent flashing being bent, corroded, damaged, loose, missing, or having exposed nail heads. There could also be debris buildup.
  • Vent flashing not being installed or sealed properly.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking every vent on the roof for proper flashing.

1.11 Flashings – Valley

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the valley flashing.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the valley flashing from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof.

Common Defects

  • Valley flashing being bent, corroded, damaged, loose, missing, or having exposed nail heads. There could also be debris buildup in the valley flashing.
  • Valley flashing being installed or not sealed properly.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking all of the valleys that are present on the roof.
  • Not commenting on the debris buildup that can be present in the valley’s.

1.12 Plumbing Vents

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

The inspector might need to use their tape measure to check proper clearances for plumbing vents on the roof.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe every plumbing vent from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof for proper flashing, installation, and clearances. If the plumbing vents are in good condition the inspector should take one representative picture of a plumbing vent.
  • Make sure to use your hand to inspect the plumbing vents by grabbing and shaking them a little bit to make sure they are properly secured.
  • Check to make sure the shingles are overlapping the flashing properly and extends down past the vent itself.

Common Defects

  • The plumbing vent being loose, missing, or capped off.
  • Rubber boot/seal that can be damaged and allow moisture intrusion.
  • Plumbing vents being too close to the valley or too short.
  • Having exposed nail heads that should be sealed (document in vent flashing).

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking every plumbing vent on the roof.
  • Not using your hand to touch the plumbing vents and checking the rubber boots.
  • Not checking for proper clearances and height of plumbing vents.

1.13 Flue Pipes

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should observe all flue pipes at the roof.

Tools Needed

The inspector may need to use their tape measure to check for proper clearance and height of flue pipes.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe every flue pipe from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof for proper flashing, installation, and clearances. If the flue pipes are in good condition the inspector should take one representative picture of a flue pipe.
  • Make sure to check flue pipes for storm collars and rain caps.
  • Make sure shingles are overlapping the flashing properly.

Common Defects

  • Clearance of a flue pipe from swamp cooler or not extending far enough above the roof.
  • The flue pipe being too tall, having corrosion, or not having flashing sealed properly.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking for proper clearances or height of flue pipes.
  • Not checking to make sure the flashing is installed and sealed properly.

1.14 Skylights

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the skylights.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe every skylight from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof for proper flashing and installation. If the skylights are in good condition the inspector should take a picture of every skylight on the roof.

Common Defects

  • Damaged Flashing
  • Broken Seal

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking every skylight on the roof for proper flashing.

1.15 Chimney

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

The inspector might need to use the tape measure in order to check for proper clearances or to see if a cricket needs to be installed.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe every chimney from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof for proper flashing and installation. If the chimney is in good condition the inspector should take a picture of the chimney on the roof.
  • Also make sure to look at the bricks in the chimney for any damage, as well as if a chimney cap is present.

Common Defects

  • Missing a chimney cap.
  • Cracks in the mortar crown.
  • Damage to the mortar joints in bricks requiring tuck pointing.
  • Chimney being too tall and not being properly braced (over five feet).
  • No cricket being installed if the chimney is 36 inches or larger.

Common Mistakes

  • Not looking down the chimney if it is accessible.
  • Not calling out the missing cap as a defect.
  • Not checking the chimney from a distance to see if it is secure and not leaning.
  • Not checking all of the flashing around the chimney.
  • Not reporting on the need of a cricket if chimney is larger than 36 inches.

1.16 Roof Ventilation

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector should check to make sure the ventilation is sufficient for the property. We are not required to calculate square footage for ventilation but if we just see one vent that would be a defect.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the ventilation.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the ventilation from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof. If the ventilation is sufficient the inspector should take a representative picture of the vents on the roof.
  • Whether or not a roof needs ventilation really needs to go back to how a house is designed and insulated regardless of roof type. Roof ventilation reduces the overall humidity that accumulates there due to cold air outside and warm air inside. Given that most standard roofs are insulated with insulation on the ceiling of the top floor, this creates a cold air gap between the attic and roof so ventilation is required/recommended. Most flat roofs are insulated at the roof so there is no cold air gap thereby no ventilation is required. However, if it is insulated at the ceiling then ventilation is needed.

Common Defects

  • Not having enough ventilation on the roof.

Common Mistakes

  • Not being able to identify ridge venting.
Not identifying that the ventilation is insufficient.

1.17 Mounting Penetrations

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: The inspector will observe all mounting penetrations for proper installation and flashing.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the mounting penetrations.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the mounting penetrations from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof.
  • The inspector should be checking for proper installation and flashing on all mounting penetrations. The inspector should make a mental note of where the mounting penetrations are located on the roof so they can check for any moisture intrusion on the inside of the property.

Common Defects

  • Mounting penetrations not being installed or sealed correctly.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking every mounting penetration.
  • Not excluding certain penetrations in the report as “Not Inspected” because the inspector is unable to properly evaluate the item (i.e. solar panels).

1.18 Roof Structure (Exterior)

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the exterior roof structure.

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the roof structure from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof. Make sure to document anything that does not look like a nice even plane in the report that it should be further evaluated.
  • If the inspector suspects any issues with the exterior structure it will be important to look at the structure on the interior (attic) when inspecting the inside of the property.

Common Defects

  • Rafters or ridge that is sagged, bowing, or too thin.
  • Decking deflection including roof decking being soft and making crunching/cracking sounds.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking all areas of the roof structure. The inspector should view the structure from the ground and if walking the roof, should try to walk all portions of the roof.
  • Not identifying the defect properly.

1.19 Roof Drainage Systems – Gutters

Axium SOP Differences

Axium Requires: Same as NACHI Standards of Practice.

Tools Needed

No tools required to inspect the roof drainage systems (Gutters).

Procedure

  • The inspector should observe the gutters from ground with binoculars, from ladder, or while walking the roof. If the gutters are sufficient the inspector should take a representative picture of the gutters on the roof.
  • Make sure to check gutters on every side of the home.

Common Defects

  • Gutters being bent, damaged, leaking, loose, or missing.
  • Gutters being full of debris.
  • Gutters that are missing end caps.
  • Gutters that need to be reconnected.
  • Gutters that are sloped wrong.
  • Gutters that have corrosion. (Moderate or Severe)
  • Gutters that are in poor condition and that are old/deteriorated.

Common Mistakes

  • Not checking all the gutters around the property.
  • If there is a gutter guard that is okay as long as it appears to be installed correctly. Make sure to exclude the gutters (Not Inspected) since you won’t be able to properly evaluate the condition of the gutters.